RFsafe Schools

Listed below are some of the latest independent, peer-reviewed and published studies, reports and analysis documenting biological harm from exposure to RF radiation and electromagnetic fields.  In many of these studies, laboratory animals are used to determine the toxicity of the exposures. According to the National Institutes of Health, “Mice and rats have long served as the preferred species for biomedical research due to their anatomical, physiological, and genetic similarity to humans.

We also note that RF radiation is the same, whether it comes from cell phones, routers, tablets, laptops or cell towers.

We are grateful to our partner TechSafeSchools in the USA, and the Environmental Health Trust for helping to provide this information. 

Pall M., (2018) Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health, Environmental Research Volume 164, July 2018, Pages 405-416

Clegg, Frank M. et al. (2019) “Building Science and Radiofrequency Radiation:What Makes Smart and Healthy Buildings.” Building and Environment: 106324. 

Morris, R. D., Morgan, L. L., & Davis, D. (2015) Children Absorb Higher Doses of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Mobile Phones Than Adults. IEEE Access, 3, 2379-2387. doi:10.1109/access.2015.247870 (2015)

Hedendahl, Lena K., et al. (2017)  “Measurements of Radiofrequency Radiation with a body-borne exposimeter in Swedish schools with Wi-Fi.” Frontiers in Public Health 5: 279

Morgan, L. L., Kesari, S., & Davis, D. L. (2014). Why children absorb more microwave radiation than adults: The consequences. Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure, 2(4), 197-204.

Belpomme, D., et al, (2018) “Thermal and non-thermal health effects of low intensity non-ionizing radiation: An international perspective.” Environmental Pollution, 242, 643-658 (2018)

NTP Technical Report on the Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies in Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD Rats Exposed to Whole-Body Radio Frequency Radiation at a Frequency (900 MHz) and Modulations (GSM and CDMA) Used by Cell Phones. (2018). 

Melnick, R. L. (2018)  Commentary on the utility of the National Toxicology Program study on cell phone radiofrequency radiation data for assessing human health risks despite unfounded criticisms aimed at minimizing the findings of adverse health effects. Environmental Research, 168, 1-6. 

Gupta, S.K., Mesharam, M.K., and Krishnamurthy, S., (2018) Electromagnetic radiation 2450 MHz exposure causes cognition deficit with mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in rats, Journal of Biosciences, 43(2), 263-276  

Avendaño, C., et al. (2012) “Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation.” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 97, no. 1, 2012, pp. 39-45.

Foerster, M., et al. (2018) A prospective cohort study of adolescents’ memory performance and individual brain dose of microwave radiation from wireless communication. Environmental Health Perspectives, 126(7), 077007. 

Sage, C. & Burgio, E. (2017) “Electromagnetic Fields, Pulsed Radiofrequency Radiation, and Epigenetics: How Wireless Technologies May Affect Childhood Development.” Child Development 89(1):129-136 

Gupta SK, et al. (2019) Long-term exposure of 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation induces stress and anxiety like behavior in rats. Neurochemistry International. 

Sudan, M., et al. (2016) “Prospective Cohort Analysis of Cellphone Use and Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties in Children.”  Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 70(12):1207-1213.

Falcioni, L., et al. (2018) “Report of final results regarding brain and heart tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to mobile phone radiofrequency field representative of a 1.8 GHz GSM base station environmental emission.” Environmental Research, 165, 496-503. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.037 

Hardell, L., & Carlberg, M. (2021). “Lost opportunities for cancer prevention: historical evidence on early warnings with emphasis on radiofrequency radiation,” Environmental Health Review, 1-13 DOI

Byun, Yoon-Hwan, et al. (2013) “Epidemiological Characteristics of Mobile Phone Ownership and Use in Korean Children and Adolescents.” Environmental Health and Toxicology 28 

Johansson, O. (2015). “Electrohypersensitivity: a functional impairment due to an inaccessible environment.” Reviews on Environmental Health, 30(4), 311-321

Divan, Kheifets, et al. (2011) “Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields and the Risk of Childhood Cancer: Update of the Epidemiological evidence.” Schüz and Joachim. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 107(3):339-42 

Belpomme, D., & Irigaray, P. (2020). “Electrohypersensitivity as a Newly Identified and Characterized Neurologic Pathological Disorder: How to Diagnose, Treat, and Prevent It.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(6), 1915.

Feychting, Maria (2010) “Mobile Phones, Radiofrequency Fields, and Health Effects in Children-Epidemiological Studies”  Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 107(3):343-348 

Thomas, Silke, et al. (2009) “Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Behavioral Problems in Bavarian Children and Adolescents”  European Journal of Epidemiology 25(2):135-41 

Repacholi, et al. (2005) “The Sensitivity of Children to Electromagnetic Fields”  Deventer. Journal of Pediatrics 116(2):303-313 

Lai and Singh, (1996) “Single and Double strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.”  The International Journal of Radiation Biology (1996; 69-4:513-521) and Bioelectromagnetics (1996; 16:207-210) 

Martin Pall. J., (2013) “Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects”. Cell. Mol. Med. Vol 17, No 8, p. 958-965 (2013)

Desouky, et al, (2015) “Targeted and non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation,” Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Vol 8, No. 2, p 247-254 (2015)

Fahmy, H., & Mohammed, F. (2020). Hepatic injury induced by radio frequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices in Wistar rats. Human & Experimental Toxicology. 

Ibitayo, A., et al, (2017) RAPD Profiling, DNA Fragmentation, and Histomorphometric Examination in Brains of Wistar Rats Exposed to Indoor 2.5 Ghz Wi-Fi Devices Radiation. BioMed Research International, 2017, pp.1-6.

Bamikole et al. (2019) “Exposure to a 2.5 GHz Non-ionizing Electromagnetic Field Alters Hematological Profiles, Biochemical Parameters, and Induces Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats” [J]. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, , 32(11): 860-863. 

Atasoy H.I. et al. (2012) “Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices.”Journal of Pediatric Urology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 223-9.

Li ZQ et al. (2020) Testing of behavioral and cognitive development in rats after prenatal exposure to 1800 and 2400 MHz radiofrequency fields. J Radiat Res. 2020 Mar 23;61(2):197-206.

Yüksel, M. et al. (2015) “Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring.” Endocrine, vol. 52, no. 2, 2015, pp. 352-62.

Siervo, B. (2018) Numerical evaluation of human exposure to WiMax patch antenna in tablet or laptop, Bioelectromagnetics. 

Shahin, Saba, et al. (2017) “2.45 GHz Microwave radiation impairs hippocampal learning and spatial memory: Involvement of local stress mechanism induced suppression of iGluR/ERK/CREB signaling.” Toxicological Sciences

Hassanshahi, A., et al. (2017) “The effect of Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves in unimodal and multimodal object recognition tasks in male rats.”Neurological Sciences, 2017, pp. 1-8.

Kuybulu, A.E., et al. (2016) “Effects of long-term pre- and post-natal exposure to 2.45GHz wireless devices on developing male rat kidney.” Renal Failure, vol. 38, no. 4, 2016, pp. 571-80.

Celik, O., M.C. Kahya and M. Naziroglu. (2015) “Oxidative stress of brain and liver is increased by Wi-Fi (2.45GHz) exposure of rats during pregnancy and the development of newborns.” Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, vol. 75, pt. B, 2015, pp. 134-9.

Dasdag, S., et al. (2015) “Effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on microRNA expression in brain tissue.”International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol 91, no. 7, 2015,  pp. 555-61.

Deshmukh, P.S., et al. (2015) “Cognitive impairment and neurogenotoxic effects in rats exposed to low-intensity microwave radiation.” International Journal of Toxicology, vol. 34, no. 3, 2015, pp. 284-90.

Megha, K., et al. (2015) “Low intensity microwave radiation induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in rat brain.”Neurotoxicology, vol. 51, 2015, pp. 158-65.

Saili, L., et al. (2015) “Effects of acute exposure to WIFI signals (2.45GHz) on heart variability and blood pressure in Albinos rabbit.”Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 40, no. 2, 2015, pp. 600-5.

Sangun, O., et al. (2015) “The effects of long-term exposure to a 2450 MHz electromagnetic field on growth and pubertal development in female Wistar rats.”Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 34, no. 1, 2015, pp. 63-7.

Shahin, S., et al. (2015) “2.45GHz microwave radiation impairs learning and spatial memory via oxidative/nitrosative stress induced p53 dependent/independent hippocampal apoptosis: molecular basis and underlying mechanism.”Toxicology Science, vol. 148, no. 2, 2015, pp. 380-99.

Papageorgio, C.C., et al. (2011) “Effects of Wi-Fi signals on the p300 component of event-related potentials during an auditory hayling task.”Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 2, 2011, pp. 189-202.

Kesari, K.K. and J. Behari. (2010) “Effects of microwave at 2.45 GHz radiations on reproductive system of male rats.” Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, vol. 92, no. 6, 2010, pp. 1135-47.

Maganioti, A. E., et al. (2010) “Wi-Fi electromagnetic fields exert gender related alterations on EEG.”6th International Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic fields, 2010.

Sinha, R.K. (2008) “Chronic non-thermal exposure of modulated 2450 MHz microwave radiation alters thyroid hormones and behavior of male rats.”International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 84, no. 6, 2008, pp. 505-13.

Paulra,j R. and J. Behari. (2006) “Single strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells exposed to microwave radiation.” Mutation Research, vol 596, no. 1-2, 2006, pp. 76-80.